2019 Elections

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[1] Election is a process that has many stages. This process can take months and each step has a different nature to the other. Registration for Election, nomination of candidates, campaigning and publications, participation on polling day, and finally counting and announcement results are the most important steps and components of this process. Each of these stages has its own set of rulebooks called a set of statute in one country, the electoral law determining the electoral system. The electoral system determines the rules for the last stages of the counting process. That is, it is the job of the electoral system to convert votes into seats. Therefore, there is a variety of electoral systems in the laws of the countries. The electoral system in each country is designed and then tailored to the needs and experiences of the Election in order to be formed. The electoral system only applies to parliamentary Election, provincial councils and district councils. There is usually a system in the presidential election, which is the majority system. Similarly, a referendum only uses a majority system because people vote in favor of the referendum or vote against the referendum, and a majority of the votes comes from the majority of votes that are casts. Therefore, the electoral system of a country determines the rules of the game of competition between different political groups. Election and the electoral system determine how power is distributed among political parties. Afghanistan's electoral system based on the current situation, the single-voting system is non-transferable; some political parties have called for a change in the electoral system, In accordance with Article 19, paragraph 2 of the Electoral Code, the Independent Election Commission (IEC) may not modify electoral bills and procedures during the electoral process. 

Electoral system of the Single non-transferable Vote SNTV

[2] Afghan Election Law has made the electoral system a Single non-transferable voting system for Afghan society. In this electoral system, every voter has the right to one vote and their vote is non-transferable. If there are multiple seats in the constituency, the candidates who received the most votes he/she will win. In this system, the votes of voters are non-transferable to other candidates or political parties. In this system, there is no proportionality between the votes cast and the seats won. This means that in a constituency where there are multiple candidates, one candidate can win the election only by receiving one additional vote. In this electoral system, political parties cannot transfer the votes of those party candidates who have received the most votes to those who have received fewer votes in order to win more seats in parliament. In this system, there is less scope for the growth of political parties in the game of power, and on the contrary there is ample opportunity to compete for independent and free candidates. In this system, there is a close relationship between each independent Member of Parliament and its constituents, increasing the accountability of the delegates to the interests of their constituencies. In this electoral system, it is still possible to provide grounds for the presence of minority groups on the political scene.

Since there are no strong and inclusive political parties in Afghanistan that include all people in all parts of the country and such inclusive parties have not yet been established, the single Non-Transferable vote Election System (SNTV) as the electoral system for Parliament,  the Provincial Council and the District Councils Afghan . The electoral system can be modified and adjusted based on the experience, needs, and political, cultural, social and economic needs of the country in accordance with the laws and other procedures of the IEC. But it cannot be adjusted during the Election.

Benefits of a non-transferable voting system:

Ensuring the participation of party and group minorities in the policy making of the country;

Making political parties more active in better regulating their pro-voter turnout by preventing the loss of votes;

. [3] It is easy to implement this system for an election organizer and voter.

There is not much experience in the field of Election in Afghanistan yet, and we have to learn from other countries that have decades of electoral experience and use their laws and practical experience to reform electoral law. Today, in many countries of the world, electoral specialization is seen as an important principle, in so far as Election have become an independent scientific discipline. Certain people in this field are trained to specialize in the field of Election.

Sources:

Ministry of Justice, Election Law; Official serial No. 1226, published on 26th September 2016

Barakzai, Zakiria, Election Magazine; Addition 1, First Year, 2008, P-10

Danish, Sarwar, Sinai Book of Science and Research, Year One, Issue 1, 2011, P-49